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TCP/IP - Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

A set of rules for communication between computers where each device (host) is assigned a unique IP address which is valid on a particular network. An IP address is made up of 4 "octets" ranging between 0 and 255, and separated by a period or dot.

An IP address can be assigned statically or dynamically. This option is found in the TCP/IP protocol settings within Network Properties. See Demo: TCP/IP Settings

DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

If you get your IP address dynamically, then DHCP is used. Simply put, the PC requests an IP address and the DHCP server on the network "leases" one out of its available pool of addresses. You can find out information about your currently assigned address, DHCP server, DNS servers (see below), and more using the WINIPCFG command (Windows 95/98), or IPCONFIG (Windows NT/2000/XP).

DNS - Domain Name System

Every device on the Internet is assigned an IP address, but navigating to them using their 12-digit IP address would be very cumbersome. DNS allows a domain name to be used as a pseudonym for a specific IP address. (i.e. www.mistupid.com). When you type in a web site name, your system looks up the name on an assigned DNS server and resolves it to its IP address. It can then access the web site. The PING command can be used to check if a domain name is resolving to an IP address, and if that IP address can be reached from your machine.
See Demo: PING

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